Article Abstract

Neuromodulation and neurostimulation: Overview and future potential

Authors: Emil A. Tanagho


The history of neuromodulation and neurostimulation began after several important discoveries in the fields of neurophysiology and electricity. In 1811, Bell (1) was the first to conduct experiments on the spinal nerve roots. He reported that manipulation of the anterior sacral roots led to muscle contractions of the back, but not the posterior fibers of the spinal nerves. Magendie (1822) further recognized the anterior motor and the posterior sensory function of the roots (2).