Kidney stone risk following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery
Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. The studies with the highest level of evidence, performed in non-stone forming patients before and after RYGB, cite a number of kidney stone risk factors, including a 25% increase in urinary oxalate, a 30% decrease in urinary citrate, and reduction in urine volume by half a liter. In addition to these, recent clinical and experimental studies have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this unique population. This review summarizes the current RYGB urinary chemistry profiles and epidemiological studies, outlines known and theoretical mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and hypocitrituria, and provides some standard recommendations for reducing stone risk in RYGB stone formers as well as some novel ones, including correction of metabolic acidosis and use of probiotics.