Commentary: 2-year follow up of pembrolizumab as second-line therapy for advanced urothelial cancer (“KEYNOTE 045”)

Mayer Fishman


The publication in 2017 of the KEYNOTE 045 prospective randomized phase 3 trial comparing pembrolizumab anti PD1 antibody with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy in treatment of recurrent urothelial cancer (1) marked a watershed for immune treatment to displace conventional cytotoxic medications.