Minimally invasive therapies for Peyronie’s disease: the current state of the art
Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a relatively common condition that can result in significant penile deformity, sexual dysfunction, and psychological bother. Surgical straightening offers the highest probability of success during the stable phase of the disease. However, for men in the acute phase of PD or for those with less severe deformity who elect to avoid surgery, a variety of non-surgical treatment options are available. Oral therapies, including L-citrulline and pentoxifylline, are most useful as part of a combination regimen rather than as monotherapy. Intralesional therapy with IFN-α2b, verapamil, and collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) can cause significant reduction in penile curvature, yet these results may not be clinically significant for men with more severe curvature. Further investigation into the timing of administration and optimal patient characteristics is required. Penile traction therapy offers a clinically significant improvement in penile length and curvature. However, this has traditionally required hours of daily therapy. Overall, a combination of oral, topical, injection and traction therapies may provide the most significant benefit among the non-surgical modalities for PD.