CD47 targeted near-infrared photo-immunotherapy: a promising tool combining monoclonal antibodies and photodynamics for treating human bladder cancer

George Bou Kheir, Fouad Aoun, Thierry Roumeguere


New technologies are of interest today in diagnosing and treating bladder cancer. Photodynamic diagnosis using violet light after instillation of hexosaminolaevulanic acid (HAL) or 5-aminolaevulanic acid (ALA) has been shown to reduce short term and long term recurrence of bladder cancer according to a systematic review and is now accepted as a diagnostic modality in EAU guidelines (1).