The role of microRNAs in prostate cancer progression
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male malignancy and the second highest cause of cancer-related mortality in United States. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that represent a new mechanism to regulate mRNA post-transcriptionally. It is involved in diverse physiological and pathophysiological process. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been associated with the multistep progression of PCa from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), localized adenocarcinoma to metastatic castration-resistance PCa (CRPC). Identification of unique miRNA could provide new biomarkers for PCa and develop into therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will summarize a broad spectrum of both tumor suppressive and oncogenic miRNAs, and their mechanisms contribute to prostate carcinogenesis.