Article Abstract

Role of heat shock proteins in bladder cancer: potential biomarkers for treatment response and oncological prognosis

Authors: Jorge Daza, Zeynep Gul, John P. Sfakianos


Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and BCG intravesical instillation have been the gold standard for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treatment in patients with intermediate and high-risk disease (1,2). However, patients with T1 high grade (T1HG) disease still have relatively poor outcomes with 11.4 and 19.8% of patients experiencing disease progression at 1 and 5 years, respectively and disease specific mortality rates of 4.8% and 11.2%, respectively (3). The identification of biomarkers that could appropriately select patients who will benefit from BCG therapy would be greatly beneficial for optimizing outcomes and minimizing overtreatment.