Prediction tools in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (BCa) is the second most common genitourinary malignancy, burdened by high rates of recurrence and progression. Urologist are encouraged to stratify patients on the bases of recurrence and progression risks in order to define the best therapeutic approach and follow-up scheme. For these reasons, the aim of the present non-systematic review was to assess the literature on prediction tools in non-muscle invasive BCa. Currently, the most widely used tools remain the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Club Urologico Espanol de Tratamiento Oncologico (CUETO) risk tables, which are based on clinicopathologic features. Recent external validations, therefore, reported their low accuracy, probably related to the lack of the role of re-transurethral resection (TURBT), early instillations, chemotherapy and complete BCG schedules in the studies included to asses these scores. More recently several immunological, biochemical and genetics biomarkers have been tested by themselves and in combination with clinicopathologic features, and many of them resulted related with risk of recurrence and progression. Future perspectives will presumably include the update of EORTC and CUETO scores with newest guidelines’ recommendations and their integration with biomarkers.