Article Abstract

Improving outcome and prognosis prediction in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer using a gene expression score

Authors: Johannes Breyer


Bladder cancer is the ninth most common malignancy worldwide considering both genders and approximately 75% of the patients are initially diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (1,2). About 10–20% of the patients will suffer from progression to muscle-invasive disease (2-4). Due to long-term follow-up regimen with cystoscopies over many years, bladder cancer carries the highest cost among cancers per patient from diagnosis to death (5).