In ancient China, the famous doctor Simiao Sun used the green
shallot as the catheter for acute urinary retention 1500 years
ago and was the predecessor of endourology in ancient China.
In 1984, Prof. Jieping Wu, the guide of Modern Endourology in
China, gave a lecture titled "The development of Urology and
Endourology in China" on the 3rd WCE in Germany. In 1991,
Prof. Yinglu Guo, the founder of modern endourology in China,
published the first textbook "Endourology" and established the
Urologist Training Institute in China. Based on the 1st literature
publication in the field of endourology, Chinese urologists
were 45 years later for TUR, 10 years later for ureteroscopy and
PCNL, and just 1-2 years for different laparoscopic procedures.
In 1981, Chinese Society of Urology (Chinese Association of
Urology) was founded and held annual meetings of urology each
year with more than 3000 participants, organized to have written
a series of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of urological
diseases and promoted the scientific exchange with AUA, EAU,
SIU, WCE and so on. By now, there are about 15,000 urologists
in China, which include more than 6,000 endourologists. There
were more than 50 medical centers qualified as endoscopic training centers by Ministry of Health of Chinese government.
In recent years, there were more than 50% of abstracts
(>6000) on the topic of endourology on annual meetings of
CUA. The endourological procedures have been carried out
broadly in many hospitals not only in relatively big cities, but
also in rural and mountain areas. In many hospitals, more and
more endourological procedures are carried out for TUR and
transurethral laser therapy, PCNL, ureteroscopic examination
and treatment, laparoscopic operations, even robot-assisted
laparoscopic procedures, and 50-90% of urological surgeries are
done by endourological procedures. Although there are only 11
robots in China and not so many robot-assisted laparoscopic
surgeries done due to its expensive costs, many hospitals have
decided to buy robots for specialty development and in the
near future, robot will be used in more and more hospitals and
different specialties and departments. There are more and more
papers and new concepts published in international English
journals from Chinese urologists, such as IUPU technique
to set up the retroperitoneal spaces, anatomical laparoscopic
nephrectomy and adrenolectomy, transurethral electrocautery
enucleation of prostate, transurethral complete laser resection of
bladder tumors, rigid ureteroscopy with deflectable tip and so on.
Now in China, LESS and NOTES procedures have been carried
out in many centers and some new trocars and instruments for
LESS have been patented by Chinese endourologists.
In the future, Chinese endourologists will change from
followers in the past to partners and leaders in the field of
endourology with the quick development of Chinese economy.