Neoplastic diseases of the spermatic cord: an overview of pathological features, evaluation, and management
Extracellular tumors found with the spermatic cord, known as neoplasms, are usually identified to be benign. However, the accurate and timely diagnosis of spermatic cord masses is highly crucial, especially when most results are often overlooked or unclear. In this review, we discuss the anatomy and embryology of the spermatic cord. Upon rooting these fundamental concepts, we discuss an array of benign and malignant neoplastic tumors, including their origin, pathological features, clinical evaluation and management, as well as other case-specific characteristics of unique presentation. Many of these neoplasms are based on local neurological, vascular, muscular, bone, soft tissue, or lymphatic origin, while others have metastasized from particular areas of the body.