Sperm DNA integrity testing—a valuable clinical tool

Mona Bungum

Abstract

For long, spermatozoa were only considered as vectors carrying the paternal genetic material to the oocyte. However, over the recent years, the important contribution of the spermatozoa to embryogenesis has become better understood. It is now evident that sperm cells are highly differentiated, polarized and specialized, containing the paternal constituents required for fertilization and normal embryonic development.