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Ureteroscopy in patients with spinal cord injury: outcomes from a spinal injury unit and a review of literature

	author = {Sarah Prattley and Rachel Oliver and Francesca New and Melissa Davies and James Brewin},
	title = {Ureteroscopy in patients with spinal cord injury: outcomes from a spinal injury unit and a review of literature},
	journal = {Translational Andrology and Urology},
	volume = {8},
	number = {4},
	year = {2019},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are at increased risk of developing urolithiasis. Ureteroscopic management for stone disease in SCI patients is underreported. Endourologists face many challenges in the management of stone disease in SCI patients including decreased stone free rates (SFR), increased infection risk, increased complication rate, anatomical variation, increased comorbidity level and challenges to nursing care. We present our experience at a regional SCI centre. 
Methods: Retrospective data was collected from 2005–2017 from a single SCI unit for patients who underwent ureteroscopy for stone disease. 
Results: A total of 21 patients underwent 41 procedures, 7 cases being a planned multi-stage approach. Bladder management included sheath catheter, urethral catheter, suprapubic catheter, intermittent self-catheterisation, mitrofanoff, and ileal conduit. Spinal cord level was cervical (71%) or thoracic (29%), with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade classification A (86%), C (9%) and D (5%). Median follow-up time for patients was 46 months. Average stone size was 27 mm (range, 5–59 mm) access was achieved 98% of patients, with an access sheath used in 63%. The SFR was 47% with a recurrence rate (RR) of 42%. The complication rate was 24% all being Clavien Dindo grade 2.
Conclusions: Ureteroscopy in SCI can be challenging and careful multidisciplinary team planning for intervention is needed. Ureteroscopy offers a useful treatment option for SCI, however, is associated with a lower SFR and greater complication rate compared to that of the general population.},
	issn = {2223-4691},	url = {}