This special issue dedicated to provide an up-to-date resource for urologists and researchers with an interest in male reproductive medicine, surgery of male infertility and men’s health. Our guest editor, Prof. Philip S. Li & Prof. Marc Goldstein, have invited distinguished authors on the frontlines of clinical and academic male reproductive medicine who have presented cutting edge basic research, microsurgical training and research, robotic techniques, the genetics of male infertility, fertility preservation in male cancer patients, and new animal models for studying the pathophysiology and microsurgical management of varicoceles. Multiphoton microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are discussed as techniques with the potential to enhance sperm retrieval and detect nerves in the spermatic cord. A chapter is devoted to androgen deficiency and metabolic syndrome in men. Another chapter addresses the substantial global public health implications of a device developed to accelerate large scale rollout of circumcision to prevent HIV, HPV and HSV in Africa.