Female with bladder cancer: what and why is there a difference?
While men are at a considerable higher risk of developing urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), women present with more advanced disease stages and seem to experience unfavorable outcomes. Evaluating specific differences in the UCB incidence and outcomes between both genders in the non-muscle invasive, muscle-invasive or locally advanced and metastatic setting, as well as determining the underlying causes of disease, may allow optimizing treatment and improving the quality of urological care among both genders. In this review we summarize the best evidence and most recent findings on gender-specific differences in UCB incidence and outcomes. In addition, we present a comprehensive overview on established and potential reasons for differences in gender-specific UCB outcomes, including disparities in the pelvic anatomy, the diagnostic work-up, the modality and quality of treatment, the exposure to risk factors, the degradation of carcinogens as well as the sex-hormone signaling.