TGF-β mediated DNA methylation in prostate cancer
Almost all tumors harbor a defective negative feedback loop of signaling by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, including DNA methylation, are fundamental to normal cellular function and also play a major role in carcinogenesis. Recent evidence demonstrated that TGF-β signaling mediates cancer development and progression. Many key events in TGF-β signaling in cancer included auto-induction of TGF-β1 and increased expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), suggesting that DNA methylation plays a significant role in cancer development and progression. In this review, we performed an extensive survey of the literature linking TGF-β signaling to DNA methylation in prostate cancer. It appeared that almost all DNA methylated genes detected in prostate cancer are directly or indirectly related to TGF-β signaling. This knowledge has provided a basis for our future directions of prostate cancer research and strategies for prevention and therapy for prostate cancer.