Standard cystectomy fits all: truth or myth?
Radical cystectomy (RC) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) followed by urinary diversion is the treatment of choice for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC) and non-invasive BC refractory to transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B) and/or intravesical instillation therapies. Since the morbidity and possible mortality of this surgery are relevant, care must be taken in the preoperative selection of patients for the various organ-sparing procedures (e.g., bladder-sparing, nerve sparing, seminal vesicle sparing) and various types of urinary diversion. The patient’s performance status and comorbidities, along with individual tumor characteristics, determine possible surgical steps during RC. This individualized approach to RC in each patient can maximize oncological safety and minimize avoidable side effects, rendering ‘standard’ cystectomy a surgery of the past.