The link between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis: a white whale for understanding urinary stone disease
The incidence of nephrolithiasis has risen steadily over recent decades, as has the rates of the metabolic syndrome. Several factors have contributed to this, including the increased incidence of obesity; more than 30% of Americans have a body mass index (BMI) >30. The etiologies for both are complex and multifactorial, but a consistently demonstrable relationship does exist between the two. Patients with either affliction are prone to the other, with the highest incidence of stones found in those with several factors leading to the metabolic syndrome (1).