Radical inguinal orchidectomy: the gold standard for initial management of testicular cancer
Radical inguinal orchidectomy with division of the spermatic cord at the internal inguinal ring is the gold standard for diagnosis and local treatment of testicular malignancies. The technique is well established and described in detail in this paper, collating methods from various surgical textbooks and articles. We also discuss pre-operative considerations including fertility counselling and potential testicular prosthesis at time of orchidectomy, and the importance of contemplating differential diagnoses such as para-testicular sarcoma and primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) prior to performing radical orchidectomy (RO). The evidence and indications for new surgical techniques to treat local testicular malignancies are also described, including testis sparing surgery (TSS) and spermatic cord sparing orchidectomy.