The role of lymphadenectomy at the time of radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Michael E. Goltzman, Augustyna Gogoj, Benjamin T. Ristau

Abstract

The role of lymphadenectomy (LND) at the time of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is controversial. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend performing a template-based LND for high-risk primary tumors while the European guidelines state that it is not feasible to determine indication or extent of LND at the time of surgery for UTUC. Herein, we review the anatomic rationale for template-based LND, examine when a LND should be considered, and discuss the impact of LND on staging and survival outcomes.