Ureteroscopic biopsy of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and role of urinary biomarkers
Ureteroscopic biopsy is an integral part of diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. It can be a technical challenge, but diagnostic rates have improved remarkably with refinements in surgical technique and specimen processing. Cytology aids with diagnosis and other urinary biomarkers continue to evolve, which may help further stratify patients for treatment. The current literature on the ureteroscopic biopsy and role of urinary biomarkers is reviewed and summarized below.