Prevalence, clinicopathological features, and prognosis in upper tract urinary carcinoma patients with severe preoperative chronic kidney disease

Zhengqing Bao, Yicong Du, Yiming Yuan, Yuze Zhu, Cheng Qian, Yonghao Zhan, Dong Fang, Gengyan Xiong, Lei Zhang, Xuesong Li, Liqun Zhou

Abstract

Background: Studies regarding the prevalence and factors associated with severe pre-operative chronic kidney disease (CKD) in upper tract urinary carcinoma (UTUC) patients were rare due to the low prevalence of UTUC. We conducted the present study to investigate the prevalence, clinicopathological features, and prognosis in UTUC patients with severe preoperative CKD.
Methods: The study included 731 patients with UTUC treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in a large Chinese center. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by re- expressed Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas for the Chinese population. Severe preoperative CKD was defined as CKD stage 4–5 (eGFR <30 mL/min). Relationships of CKD stage 4–5 with clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), contralateral recurrence-free survival and intravesical recurrence (IVR)-free survival were analyzed.
Results: A total of 73 (10.0%) patients presented severe preoperative CKD in this cohort. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that female gender (OR =1.791; 95% CI: 1.018–3.150; P=0.043), lower BMI (OR =0.452; 95% CI: 0.262–0.778; P=0.004), concomitant bladder tumor (OR =2.944; 95% CI: 1.360–6.373; P=0.006), lower pathological T stage (OR =0.578; 95% CI: 0.339–0.984; P=0.043), tumor necrosis (OR =2.764; 95% CI: 1.411–5.416; P=0.003), and exposure of aristolochic acid (AA) (OR =3.115; 95% CI: 1.536– 6.316; P=0.002) were significantly related to severe CKD. Multivariate Cox’s regression analysis showed that severe preoperative CKD was significantly associated with worse OS (HR =1.840; 95% CI: 1.150–2.944; P=0.011) and worse contralateral recurrence-free survival (HR =3.269; 95% CI: 1.607–6.650; P=0.001), while no statistical difference in terms of CSS or IVR-free survival were noticed.
Conclusions: Female gender, lower BMI, concomitant bladder tumor, lower pathological T stage, exposure of AA, and tumor necrosis were independently associated with severe preoperative CKD in UTUC patients. UTUC patients with severe preoperative CKD possess worse OS and higher possibility of contralateral upper urinary tract recurrence.