Contemporary techniques and outcomes of robotic assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion
The open approach to radical cystectomy continues to be accompanied by significant morbidity despite enhanced recovery protocols (ERP). Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) has become an increasingly popular technique for removal of aggressive bladder cancer and subsequent urinary diversion. Randomized clinical trials comparing the robotic and open techniques address the uncertainty surrounding oncological efficacy of the RARC and show that RARC is at least comparable to open radical cystectomy (ORC) in terms of oncologic adequacy and survival. Although RARC with ICUD is a technically challenging procedure, surgeons have noted ergonomic advantages while patients experience less blood loss and quicker time to recovery and to adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), if necessary. Even with these benefits, there is a paucity of data describing outcomes of ICUD. For those surgeons who have switched to ICUD, priority remains standardization of a protocol for the reconstructive component and for a safe transition from extracorporeal urinary diversion (ECUD) to ICUD. Additionally, there is a need for evidence of reduced financial toxicity for the patient, as well as more comprehensive cost-effectiveness analyses. The literature from this review represents 10 years of accumulating data on techniques and outcomes of RARC with ICUD.