Contemporary management of early stage testicular seminoma
Therapy for early stage testicular seminoma has changed radically over the past several decades. Given high cure rates and clinical trials supporting less active therapy in most cases, close observation after radical orchiectomy is now considered standard of care for clinical stage (CS) IA/IB seminoma, with either radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy salvage options possible. For CS IIA/IIB seminoma characterized by non-bulky retroperitoneal lymph node involvement (≤ 5 cm in greatest dimension), RT or combination chemotherapy are the standard of care. Given high comparable survival rates, preventing treatment-related toxicity and second malignancy, and limiting quality of life deficits associated with intense treatment has gained much greater importance. Clinical trials are currently testing the feasibility of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for low volume CS IIA/IIB metastatic testicular seminoma to this end. Likewise, one cycle of chemotherapy is being evaluated as an adjuvant approach to reduce recurrence rates in CS I disease with unfavorable risk factors. Moreover, recent genomic and molecular studies have recently identified novel signatures and a potential biomarker for testicular seminoma. In this review, we first summarize the evolution of early stage seminoma management and discuss the effectiveness and drawbacks of contemporary treatment strategies. We further outline future perspectives and potential challenges in management of early stage testicular seminoma.