Second line immune checkpoint inhibition in urothelial cancer

Kilian M. Gust, Mohammad Abufaraj, David D’Andrea, Marco Moschini, Francesco Soria, Shahrokh F. Shariat


Urothelial cancer (UC) is devastating disease, once it reaches muscle invasive (MIBC) and metastatic stage. Even when performing radical cystectomy (RC) with pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with MIBC, approximately half of the patients will develop metastasis and still no long-term cure for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) has been found (1).