Therapeutic strategies for uncommon testis cancer histologies: teratoma with malignant transformation and malignant testicular sex cord stromal tumors
Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy in male adolescents and young adults, with germ cell derived seminomas and non-seminomas being by far the most common histologies. Teratoma with somatic-type malignancy is a rare chemo-resistant phenotype of testis cancer associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage disease. Malignant gonadal-stromal tumors comprise 5% of testicular neoplasms and approximately 10% are malignant and considered chemo-radiation resistant. Prognostic factors and treatment strategies for these uncommon histologies are lacking.