Systemic therapy for primary and extragonadal germ cell tumors: prognosis and nuances of treatment
Testicular germ cell tumors are the most common solid tumors in young men. These cancers represent a success story of modern medicine in our ability to cure young patients and offer decades of life, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 95%. This review outlines the staging and risk classification of testicular cancers, and reviews the current state of knowledge and standard of care for the systemic treatment of testicular germ cell tumors with chemotherapy, focusing on the relevant clinical data supporting each treatment regimen. This review also briefly highlights current areas of active investigation, notably in the relapsed and refractory setting, including ongoing clinical trials.