The future of penile prostheses for the treatment of erectile dysfunction
Penile prostheses (both inflatable and malleable) are standard care in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). Introduced over 45 years ago, modern penile implants have evolved greatly during that period of time and now represent the cutting edge in materials science and function. Despite the introduction of highly effective oral pharmacotherapy for ED, these devices have remained relevant and will almost certainly remain so for the foreseeable future. Despite their high degree of efficacy, there is always potential for further improvements in both implants themselves and the surgical techniques and processes used for their placement. In this manuscript we speculate on the future of penile implants, based in large part on the historical perspective and recent developments in the implant surgery space. We include recommendations on future technical innovations, post-operative management, and novel implant designs that may revolutionize the future management of ED.