Development of patient-derived xenograft models of prostate cancer for maintaining tumor heterogeneity
Prostate cancer (Pca) is a heterogeneous disease with multiple morphological patterns. Thus, the establishment of a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model that retains key features of the primary tumor is of great significance. This review demonstrates the characteristics and advantages of the Pca PDX model and summarizes the main factors affecting the establishment of the model. Because this model well recapitulates the diverse heterogeneity observed in the clinic, it was extensively utilized to discover new therapeutic targets, screen drugs, and explore metastatic mechanisms. In the future, clinical phenotype and different stages of the Pca patient might be faithfully reflected by PDX model, which provides tremendous potential for understanding Pca biology and achieving individualized treatment.