Penile sparing therapy for penile cancer
Penile cancer is a rare malignancy with a reported incidence of 0.66–1.44 per 100,000 men, and a reported mortality of 0.15–0.37 per 10,000 men. Expert clinical examination and histological diagnosis from biopsy is required to determine the extent and invasion of disease, which is paramount in planning of appropriate treatment. Management of loco-regional penile cancer can be divided into management of primary tumour and management of regional lymph nodes. This review article will focus on the management of the primary penile tumour with particular focus on penile sparing therapies. The aim of primary penile tumour management is to completely remove the tumour whilst preserving as much organ function as possible. Preservation of the penis is important as it allows patients to maintain urinary and sexual function, as well as quality of life. With the majority of penile cancer confined to the glans and foreskin, most penile cancers can be managed with organ-preserving therapy. A wide variety of treatment options are available, and this review aims to describe each of the options including the reported oncological and functional outcome for the different therapies for penile cancer.