Value of systematic sampling in an mp-MRI targeted prostate biopsy strategy

Martin J. Connor, Saiful Miah, Rajiv Jayadevan, Christopher C. Khoo, David Eldred-Evans, Taimur Shah, Hashim U. Ahmed, Leonard Marks


The clinical utility of systematic prostate biopsy in addition to multi-parametric magnetic resonance imagining (mp-MRI) targeted biopsy pathways remains unclear. Despite radiological advancements in mp-MRI and utilisation of international standardised reporting systems (i.e., PI-RADS, LIKERT), undetected clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) on imaging persists. This has prevented the widespread adoption of an exclusively targeted biopsy approach. The current evidence on csPCa cancer detection rates in mp-MRI targeted alone and combined with a non-targeted systematic sampling is presented. Arguments for and against routine limited systematic sampling as an adjunct to an mp-MRI targeted biopsy are discussed. Our review will report the clinical utility of a combined sampling strategy on csPCa detection rate. The available evidence suggests that we are yet to reach a stage where non-targeted systematic prostate biopsy can be routinely omitted in mp-MRI targeted prostate biopsy pathways. Research should focus on improving the accuracy of mp-MRI, prostate biopsy techniques, and in identifying those men that will most benefit from a combined prostate biopsy. Such strategies may help future urologists reduce the burden of non-targeted cores in modern mp-MRI prostate biopsy pathways.