Techniques and considerations of prosthetic surgery after phalloplasty in the transgender male

Audry Kang, Joshua M. Aizen, Andrew J. Cohen, Gregory T. Bales, Joseph J. Pariser


For many transgender males, “lower” or “bottom” surgery (the construction of a phallus and scrotum) is the definitive step in their surgical journey for gender affirmation. The implantation of penile and testicular prostheses is often the final anatomic addition and serves to add both functionality and aesthetics to the reconstruction. However, with markedly distinctive anatomy from cis-gender men, the implantation of prostheses designed for cis-male genitalia poses a significant surgical challenge for the reconstructive urologist. The surgical techniques for these procedures remain in their infancy. Implantation of devices originally engineered for cis-men is an imperfect solution but not insurmountable if approached with ingenuity, patience, and persistence. Urologists and patients undergoing implantation should be aware of the high complication rates associated with these procedures as well as the current uncertainty of long-term outcomes. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the perioperative considerations, adaptive surgical techniques, and unique complications of penile and testicular prosthetic implantation in transgender men.