Bladder organoids: a step towards personalised cancer therapy?
Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is complicated by its underlying genetic diversity that renders prognosis and treatment a challenge and imposes a significant health and economic burden. Although the non-muscle invasive form of bladder cancer (NMIBC) is responsive to treatment, a significant proportion of tumors recur and patients require lifelong monitoring to identify cancers that become muscle-invasive. Most patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) present late and show poor response to therapy, with attendant poor survival. This underpins the clinical need for progress in bladder cancer research and translation.