Article Abstract

Molecular subtyping, tumor infiltration, and trimodal therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: more questions than answers

Authors: Ronald Kool, José João Mansure, Wassim Kassouf


Trimodal therapy (TMT) is currently accepted as a suitable alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) with perioperative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recent publications demonstrated that survival outcomes are comparable when patients are appropriately selected (1,2).