Article Abstract

Significant lack of urine-based biomarkers to replace cystoscopy for the surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Authors: Makito Miyake, Takuya Owari, Shunta Hori, Kiyohide Fujimoto


One of the clinical issues in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the high rate of intravesical recurrence, which requires follow-up cystoscopy at regular intervals. However, cystoscopy is an invasive examination associated with pain, discomfort, and urinary tract infection.