Transurethral resection of bladder tumours: established and new methods of tumour visualisation
Transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder tumours does not only serve diagnostic purposes by securing histological proof of the disease but might also resemble the final therapy. During recent years, technical innovations improved the intraoperative detection and visibility of tumourous lesions during TUR. The most important techniques, which have individually found their way into international guidelines, are photodynamic imaging (PDI) and narrowband imaging (NBI). Furthermore, there are more or less experimental approaches such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), red/green/blue analysis (RGB) of WLC. Moreover, the combination of two or more techniques in a multiparametric setting is another development in improving intraoperative imaging. The aim of this review is to describe today’s knowledge of the more established methods and to depict the most recent developments in intraoperative imaging.