Challenges of kidney transplantation in HIV positive recipients

Mahmoud Alameddine, Joshua S. Jue, Ian Zheng, Gaetano Ciancio


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has long been a contraindication to kidney transplantation due to transplant immunosuppression, HIV-associated renal dysfunction, and nephrotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, advances in antiretroviral therapies and transplant immunosuppression regimens have allowed patients to successfully undergo kidney transplantation. Emerging data has shown that kidney transplantation may be a viable option for appropriately selected HIV patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this review, we discuss the indications, immunosuppression protocols, and outcomes of kidney transplantation in HIV patients.