Patient-derived xenograft models to optimize kidney cancer therapies
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid neoplasm of the adult kidney and has a high potential for developing metastatic spread. Approximately 25–30% of RCC patients have metastatic disease at presentation, and 30–40% of patients develop metastases after the initial diagnosis. Advanced renal cancer is a deadly and difficult-to-treat cancer. The 5-year survival rate of patients with metastatic disease is less than 10%, partly because RCC metastases become resistant to current therapies. Pre-clinical models may help to identify the optimum therapeutic options for individual patients. Here we reviewed various mouse xenograft methods for RCC treatment screening especially patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models. Advantages and disadvantaged of some of the models are also discussed.