Effect of nitroso-redox imbalance on male reproduction
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are byproducts of normal metabolic processes. They are necessary for normal cellular function and are kept in balance by antioxidant mechanisms. Alterations in levels of ROS and RNS can lead to nitroso-redox imbalance that in turn can negatively affect male reproduction. Strategies to decrease ROS/RNS involve evasion of exposures (smoking, meat intake, pollution, calorie-dense diet), managing lifestyle, and increasing the consumption of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, taurine, quercetin). Targeted therapies focusing on nitroso-redox imbalance can be critical for treatment of male reproductive dysfunction. This review outlines endogenous and exogenous sources of ROS/RNS, adverse effect on male reproduction, and strategies to control nitroso-redox imbalance.