Lymph node imaging in testicular cancer
Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy mainly affecting young men. Survival for testicular cancer remains high due to the effectiveness of multimodal treatment options. Accurate imaging is imperative to both treatment and follow-up. Both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suffer from size cut-offs as the only distinguishing characteristic of benign vs. malignant lymph nodes and may miss up to 30% of micro-metastatic disease. While functional [positron emission tomography (PET)] imaging may rule out disease in patients with seminoma who have undergone chemotherapy, there is insufficient evidence to recommend its use in other settings. This review highlights the uses and pitfalls of conventional imaging during staging, active surveillance, and post-treatment phases of both seminomatous and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT).