Detection of lymph node metastases in penile cancer

Jonathan B. Bloom, Michael Stern, Neel H. Patel, Michael Zhang, John L. Phillips


Penile cancer (PC) is a relatively rare malignancy in the United States (US) but a greater concern in developing nations. Lymph node imaging remains critical to the staging and treatment of this disease as metastases develop in a predictable, anatomic fashion. Early surgical intervention remains a mainstay in treatment and imaging often aids in decision making. This review highlights the indications for imaging in both low-stage and advanced disease. Furthermore, we discuss the benefits and limitations of currently available imaging for staging of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes in PC and novel modalities in development.