Contemporary management of ejaculatory dysfunction
Although erectile dysfunction is the most common disorder of male sexual health, ejaculatory dysfunction is the most common form of sexual dysfunction experienced by men. Ejaculatory dysfunction covers a broad range of disorders that we have divided into four main categories: premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation (DE)/anorgasmia, unsatisfactory sensation of ejaculation (including painful ejaculation and ejaculatory anhedonia), and absent ejaculate (including retrograde ejaculation and aspermia). We also cover several special scenarios including hematospermia, spinal cord injury and fertility with anejaculation. In this paper, we will review the anatomy and pathophysiology of normal ejaculation to establish the baseline knowledge of how this pathway can go awry. We will then briefly review the critical diagnostic criteria, pertinent steps in evaluation, risk factors, and causes (if known) for each of the ejaculatory disorders. Finally, the bulk of the paper will discuss current management strategies of each disorder.