Emerging role of cytoreductive prostatectomy in patients with metastatic disease

Yasmeen Jaber, Chad A. Reichard, Brian F. Chapin


Traditionally, systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the primary treatment modality in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) while treatment of the primary tumor has been reserved for patients with clinically localized disease. Emerging data suggests that treating the primary tumor in patients with metastatic disease may provide a survival benefit. However, these studies are fraught with selection bias towards patients with favorable disease characteristics. Despite these limitations, clinicians are becoming increasingly interested in consolidative treatment of the primary tumor in this setting. Many translational models and observational studies of cytoreduction in mPCa have yielded compelling results, suggesting a potential biological and clinical benefit. While there are no published randomized control trials on cytoreduction in mPCa, the literature regarding safety, feasibility, and potential symptomatic benefit of cytoreductive prostatectomy (CRP) in mPCa supports further investigation. Thus, MEDLINE and PubMed electronic databases were queried for English language articles related to patients with mPCa who underwent radical prostatectomy. Keywords used include: cytoreductive prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, oligometastatic, mPCa, and oligometastasis. In this review we examine the literature regarding the feasibility of CRP as well as the reported oncologic outcomes, limitations of the literature, and future directions. Since there is currently no level one evidence to support its use, CRP should not be applied outside a clinical trial. A better understanding of the biology driving mPCa, in conjunction with standardization of clinical trials, will help expedite actionable data acquisition that may improve clinical outcomes.