Perspective on cytoreduction and metastasis-directed therapy in node positive and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder
The outcome of node positive or metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (mUCB) is poor and palliative chemotherapy has long been considered the only treatment option for this patient group. Cytoreduction and metastasis-directed therapy, either by surgery or radiotherapy, has been successfully applied in other metastatic solid tumors in order to increase survival. In this article, we explore the literature supporting cytoreduction and metastasis-directed therapy in node positive and mUCB and try to define a patient cohort that could benefit from these treatments. From these data, it is clear that a selected group of patients survive a long time or could even be cured, however the data are scarce and the level of evidence is low. The criteria of a randomized clinical trial, to deliver the necessary evidence, are proposed.