Genetic determinants for chemo- and radiotherapy resistance in bladder cancer
Bladder cancer (BCa) is burdened by high rates of chemo- and radio-resistance. We reviewed and summarized the current evidence regarding the genetic determinants of resistance in patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT) for BCa. Genetic heterogeneity may preexist to treatment arising with tumorigenesis or increasing progressively during the treatment. Several biological pathways seem to be involved in the cellular response to treatment. These pathways comprehend mechanisms leading to modify the intracellular concentration of the drug, mechanisms leading to increase the repair of DNA damage caused by the treatment, mechanisms leading to increase cell survival, despite DNA damage, acting on the signaling pathways affecting apoptosis, mechanisms promoting autophagy. In the present review, we focused on the genetic determinants of resistance affecting the aforementioned mechanisms.