Beyond chemotherapy for advanced disease—the role of EGFR and PD-1 inhibitors
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare malignancy with limited treatment options when the tumor is unresectable and/or chemorefractory. Triplet systemic chemotherapy regimens including taxane and cisplatin are recommended, but the response duration can be short and the treatment-related toxicity high. Only a small proportion of patients survive 1 year or longer with the current standard treatment paradigm. Beyond chemotherapy, the use of novel targeted agents, either alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents, has appeared to have promising efficacy in patients with platinum-refractory penile cancer. The frequent overexpression of PD-L1 in advanced penile SCC indicates the potential efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors. Upcoming clinical trials using the immune check-point inhibitors may provide exciting landscape and change the paradigm for patients in the future.