Penile fracture epidemiology, diagnosis and management in Iran: a narrative review
Penile fracture (PF) is considered an emergency in urology. In the literature there are some case series reporting considerable incidence of PF in some parts of Iran. There are no accurate data about the incidence of PF all around Iran. Although it may be uncommon in other parts of the country and in the other countries, it can also be underreported. There are some challenges in diagnosis, management, and also reporting of these cases. In this review of Iranian medical literature, we searched for penile fracture and penile injury keywords in Medline, Scopus, SID, Google and Persian medical journals. We reviewed the status of epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, management and complications of PF in different parts of Iran in the published literature. To collect more accurate data, we also performed a questionnaire-based study with sending questionnaires by emails to 700 urologists throughout the country with 14% response rate. Incidence of PF varies significantly in different parts of Iran. Western province of Kermanshah has a significantly higher rate of PF. Adding data from different regions of Iran, we calculated that incidence of PF in Iran can be estimated between 1.14 to 10.48 per 100,000 of male populations, most probably closer to lower end. Although the incidence of PF varies significantly in different geographical areas, urologists practicing in Iran on average may encounter a PF patient every 3.5 months. To diagnose PF, majority of reviewed studies relied on history and clinical examination and did not recommend imaging except in patients with possible urethral injuries. Immediate surgical intervention can make good functional results with low morbidity and short hospital stay. Delayed surgical intervention and observational management approaches need large population studies with long term follow up.