Testosterone deficiency in adults and corresponding treatment patterns across the globe
The global prevalence of testosterone deficiency (TD) ranges from 10–40%. The actual diagnosis of TD is controversial, as a wide range of total testosterone (TT) thresholds are used for diagnosis (200–400 ng/dL), and physicians differ in their emphasis placed on clinical symptoms. There are also significant global differences in the prescription patterns of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In the United States, prescription of TRT is significantly higher than the rest of the world, increasing 3-fold over the last 10 years and more so in eugonadal men. The majority of treating physicians emphasizes clinical symptomology of TD over laboratory values, and up to one-fourth of their patients do not even have serum testosterone levels. There are significant inter-physician differences in willingness to prescribe TRT in the setting of prostate cancer. Data is scarce on testosterone prescribing patterns in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. More literature is needed to better characterize how physicians from different regions diagnose TD.