Immunotherapy in renal cell cancer: the more the merrier?

Jorge Camarero, Sol Ruiz


Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common primary malignancy affecting the kidney and considered a disease refractory to systemic therapy beyond cytokine therapy (the use of interferon alfa and interleukin 2 was limited when targeted therapies became available) (1). Currently, eight drugs are approved in the European Union (EU) for the treatment of advanced RCC, including IL-2, IFN-α, sorafenib, sunitinib, everolimus, temsirolimus, bevacizumab in combination with IFN-α, and pazopanib.