Article Abstract

Are antibiotics necessary during routine cystoscopic stent removal?

Authors: Joel E. Abbott, Allison Han, Michelle McDonald, Charlie Lakin, Roger L. Sur


Background: The 2008 American Urological Association (AUA) Best Practice Statement on antimicrobial prophylaxis states that prophylaxis is not warranted for subjects with normal risk profile undergoing cystourethroscopy unless manipulation such as ureteral stent removal is performed. To date no studies have specifically assessed the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis during cystoscopic ureteral stent removal. We sought to determine the risk of infectious complications following cystoscopic stent removal with and without antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Methods: A retrospective review identified 70 subjects who underwent cystoscopic ureteral stent removal following kidney stone treatment, under the care of two separate urologists with differing practice patterns. Each cohort consisted of 35 subjects: with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Clinical variables assessed included demographics, type of stone intervention, prior urinary tract infection (UTI) history, immunocompromising comorbidities, antimicrobial class at time of stone intervention, and antimicrobial administration at cystoscopic stent removal. The primary outcome assessed was development of symptomatic UTI within 4 weeks after stent removal.
Results: Overall, 35 patients (50%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis at the time of stent removal and 35 (50%) did not receive antimicrobial prophylaxis, with no demographic or clinical differences between cohorts. Two patients in the antimicrobial cohort (6%) developed a UTI and none of the patients who did not receive antimicrobial prophylaxis developed a UTI (P=0.15).
Conclusions: In our cohort study antimicrobial prophylaxis at the time of cystoscopic stent removal did not appear to provide a significant benefit in UTI prevention. Prospective studies would assist in validating these findings.